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What Is SNI? Encrypted SNI (ESNI and ECH)

| #Articles

When a piece of server software wants to make itself available to clients via the network, it binds to a socket. A socket is simply the IP address and port combination the server software listens on for connections. (Most commonly server software chooses to listen on a particular port across all available network interfaces). What happens though if a particular server wants to serve multiple,… [read more →]

OpenSSL 1.1.1k Patches for Two High-Severity Vulnerabilities

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A lot can be learned about SSL/TLS by analyzing real-world bugs and the ways in which vendors patch them. This past week OpenSSL 1.1.1k was released, which corrected two high severity bugs in the popular OpenSSL software. Specifically, CVE-2021-3450 and CVE-2021-3449 are considered to be “high” severity but not “critical” severity because while they are extremely impactful, they affect less common … [read more →]

What is SHA-256? How is Hashing used?

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Next to encryption, hashing is perhaps the most important building block of modern cryptosystems. But what is a hash? Why is it important? How can some ways of computing a hash be better than others, and what makes a particular method suitable for cryptography? What is a hash? What do we use hashes for? What makes a hash suitable for cryptographic purposes? Testing it with OpenSSL … [read more →]

What is 256-bit Encryption? How long would it take to crack?

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It is a peculiar thing to see, but more and more commonly terms of art make their way into the mainstream media. It seems that every week a new article about a vulnerability, cyberattack, or data breach makes its way into public discourse. One phrase used to give confidence in a strong encryption scheme is “256-bit encryption”, but what does this mean? What is Encryption? What is a Key Size? H… [read more →]

DDOS Attacks: A game of cat and mouse

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What is a DOSS Attack? How can it be prevented? How often does this sort of thing happen? How do attackers get their hands on so much bandwidth? What can I do? What is a DOSS Attack? A distributed-denial-of-service (DDOS) attack occurs when a service provider is intentionally overwhelmed at the network layer by a large volume of requests. These requests might consist of normal traffic… [read more →]